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The error signal is then low-pass filtered and used to drive a VCO which creates an output phase. The output is fed through an optional divider back to the input of the system, producing a negative feedback loop.

If the output phase drifts, the error signal will increase, driving the VCO phase in the opposite direction so as to reduce the error.

Thus the output phase is locked to the phase at the other input. This input is called the reference. Analog phase locked loops are generally built with an analog phase detector, low pass filter and VCO placed in a negative feedback configuration.

A non-integer multiple of the reference frequency can also be created by replacing the simple divide-by- N counter in the feedback path with a programmable pulse swallowing counter.

The oscillator generates a periodic output signal. Assume that initially the oscillator is at nearly the same frequency as the reference signal.

If the phase from the oscillator falls behind that of the reference, the phase detector changes the control voltage of the oscillator so that it speeds up.

Likewise, if the phase creeps ahead of the reference, the phase detector changes the control voltage to slow down the oscillator. Since initially the oscillator may be far from the reference frequency, practical phase detectors may also respond to frequency differences, so as to increase the lock-in range of allowable inputs.

A phase detector PD generates a voltage, which represents the phase difference between two signals. The PD output voltage is used to control the VCO such that the phase difference between the two inputs is held constant, making it a negative feedback system.

For instance, the frequency mixer produces harmonics that adds complexity in applications where spectral purity of the VCO signal is important.

The resulting unwanted spurious sidebands, also called " reference spurs " can dominate the filter requirements and reduce the capture range well below or increase the lock time beyond the requirements.

In these applications the more complex digital phase detectors are used which do not have as severe a reference spur component on their output.

Also, when in lock, the steady-state phase difference at the inputs using this type of phase detector is near 90 degrees.

In PLL applications it is frequently required to know when the loop is out of lock. The more complex digital phase-frequency detectors usually have an output that allows a reliable indication of an out of lock condition.

It can also be used in an analog sense with only slight modification to the circuitry. The block commonly called the PLL loop filter usually a low pass filter generally has two distinct functions.

The primary function is to determine loop dynamics, also called stability. This is how the loop responds to disturbances, such as changes in the reference frequency, changes of the feedback divider, or at startup.

Common considerations are the range over which the loop can achieve lock pull-in range, lock range or capture range , how fast the loop achieves lock lock time, lock-up time or settling time and damping behavior.

Depending on the application, this may require one or more of the following: Common concepts in control theory including the PID controller are used to design this function.

The second common consideration is limiting the amount of reference frequency energy ripple appearing at the phase detector output that is then applied to the VCO control input.

The design of this block can be dominated by either of these considerations, or can be a complex process juggling the interactions of the two.

Often also the phase-noise is affected. All phase-locked loops employ an oscillator element with variable frequency capability.

PLLs may include a divider between the oscillator and the feedback input to the phase detector to produce a frequency synthesizer.

A programmable divider is particularly useful in radio transmitter applications, since a large number of transmit frequencies can be produced from a single stable, accurate, but expensive, quartz crystal—controlled reference oscillator.

Some PLLs also include a divider between the reference clock and the reference input to the phase detector. It might seem simpler to just feed the PLL a lower frequency, but in some cases the reference frequency may be constrained by other issues, and then the reference divider is useful.

Frequency multiplication can also be attained by locking the VCO output to the N th harmonic of the reference signal.

Instead of a simple phase detector, the design uses a harmonic mixer sampling mixer. The harmonic mixer turns the reference signal into an impulse train that is rich in harmonics.

Consequently, the desired harmonic mixer output representing the difference between the N harmonic and the VCO output falls within the loop filter passband.

It should also be noted that the feedback is not limited to a frequency divider. This element can be other elements such as a frequency multiplier, or a mixer.

The multiplier will make the VCO output a sub-multiple rather than a multiple of the reference frequency. A mixer can translate the VCO frequency by a fixed offset.

It may also be a combination of these. An example being a divider following a mixer; this allows the divider to operate at a much lower frequency than the VCO without a loss in loop gain.

The equations governing a phase-locked loop with an analog multiplier as the phase detector and linear filter may be derived as follows.

The star symbol is a conjugate transpose. Then the following dynamical system describes PLL behavior. The time-domain model takes the form.

PD characteristics for this signals is equal [15] to. Phase locked loops can also be analyzed as control systems by applying the Laplace transform.

The loop response can be written as:. The loop characteristics can be controlled by inserting different types of loop filters. The simplest filter is a one-pole RC circuit.

The loop transfer function in this case is:. This is the form of a classic harmonic oscillator. The denominator can be related to that of a second order system:.

The loop natural frequency is a measure of the response time of the loop, and the damping factor is a measure of the overshoot and ringing. Ideally, the natural frequency should be high and the damping factor should be near 0.

With a single pole filter, it is not possible to control the loop frequency and damping factor independently.

For the case of critical damping,. A slightly more effective filter, the lag-lead filter includes one pole and one zero. The L-Phase series feature a powerful interface with a detailed display.

Additionally the L-Phase Multiband features per band input and make-up gain metering built-in to the threshold and output controls.

Equipped with professionally crafted presets and the ability to Save, Edit and Organize your own in an intuitive preset manager. This is where you go under the hood and configure the L-Phase series for whatever you throw at it.

Solo mode allows for hearing the signal of any independent band. Once in this mode you can click any node to hear its independent frequency band for fine tuning.

The L-Phase Equalizer features 20 color-coded bands, five filter types, and automatically picks the most common filter or EQ curve based on the frequency where the band is created.

The L-Phase Multiband features 6 color-coded bands, external sidechain support with audition, Auto Release to minimize pumping, and intelligently sets the attack time based on where the band is created.

It is common for waves of electromagnetic light, RF , acoustic sound or other energy to become superposed in their transmission medium.

When that happens, the phase difference determines whether they reinforce or weaken each other. Complete cancellation is possible for waves with equal amplitudes.

Time is sometimes used instead of angle to express position within the cycle of an oscillation. A phase difference is analogous to two athletes running around a race track at the same speed and direction but starting at different positions on the track.

They pass a point at different instants in time. But the time difference phase difference between them is a constant - same for every pass since they are at the same speed and in the same direction.

If they were at different speeds different frequencies , the phase difference is undefined and would only reflect different starting positions.

Technically, phase difference between two entities at various frequencies is undefined and does not exist.

A real-world example of a sonic phase difference occurs in the warble of a Native American flute. The amplitude of different harmonic components of same long-held note on the flute come into dominance at different points in the phase cycle.

The phase difference between the different harmonics can be observed on a spectrogram of the sound of a warbling flute. Phase comparison is a comparison of the phase of two waveforms, usually of the same nominal frequency.

In time and frequency, the purpose of a phase comparison is generally to determine the frequency offset difference between wave cycles with respect to a reference.

A phase comparison can be made by connecting two signals to a two-channel oscilloscope. The oscilloscope will display two sine waves, as shown in the graphic to the right.

Phase L Video

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Over time, that time difference would become substantial. To keep the wall clock in sync with the reference clock, each week the owner compares the time on his wall clock to a more accurate clock a phase comparison , and he resets his clock.

Left alone, the wall clock will continue to diverge from the reference clock at the same few seconds per hour rate. Some clocks have a timing adjustment a fast-slow control.

Consequently, he could turn the timing adjust a small amount to make the clock run a little slower frequency.

If things work out right, his clock will be more accurate than before. An early electromechanical version of a phase-locked loop was used in in the Shortt-Synchronome clock.

Spontaneous synchronization of weakly coupled pendulum clocks was noted by the Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens as early as Vincent found that two electronic oscillators that had been tuned to oscillate at slightly different frequencies but that were coupled to a resonant circuit would soon oscillate at the same frequency.

In the homodyne or synchrodyne system, a local oscillator was tuned to the desired input frequency and multiplied with the input signal.

The resulting output signal included the original modulation information. The intent was to develop an alternative receiver circuit that required fewer tuned circuits than the superheterodyne receiver.

Since the local oscillator would rapidly drift in frequency, an automatic correction signal was applied to the oscillator, maintaining it in the same phase and frequency of the desired signal.

In analog television receivers since at least the late s, phase-locked-loop horizontal and vertical sweep circuits are locked to synchronization pulses in the broadcast signal.

When Signetics introduced a line of monolithic integrated circuits like the NE that were complete phase-locked loop systems on a chip in , [9] applications for the technique multiplied.

Phase-locked loop mechanisms may be implemented as either analog or digital circuits. Both implementations use the same basic structure.

Both analog and digital PLL circuits include four basic elements:. There are several variations of PLLs. Phase-locked loops are widely used for synchronization purposes; in space communications for coherent demodulation and threshold extension , bit synchronization , and symbol synchronization.

Phase-locked loops can also be used to demodulate frequency-modulated signals. In radio transmitters, a PLL is used to synthesize new frequencies which are a multiple of a reference frequency, with the same stability as the reference frequency.

Some data streams, especially high-speed serial data streams such as the raw stream of data from the magnetic head of a disk drive , are sent without an accompanying clock.

The receiver generates a clock from an approximate frequency reference, and then phase-aligns to the transitions in the data stream with a PLL.

This process is referred to as clock recovery. If a clock is sent in parallel with data, that clock can be used to sample the data.

Because the clock must be received and amplified before it can drive the flip-flops which sample the data, there will be a finite, and process-, temperature-, and voltage-dependent delay between the detected clock edge and the received data window.

This delay limits the frequency at which data can be sent. One way of eliminating this delay is to include a deskew PLL on the receive side, so that the clock at each data flip-flop is phase-matched to the received clock.

Many electronic systems include processors of various sorts that operate at hundreds of megahertz. The multiplication factor can be quite large in cases where the operating frequency is multiple gigahertz and the reference crystal is just tens or hundreds of megahertz.

All electronic systems emit some unwanted radio frequency energy. Various regulatory agencies such as the FCC in the United States put limits on the emitted energy and any interference caused by it.

The emitted noise generally appears at sharp spectral peaks usually at the operating frequency of the device, and a few harmonics. A system designer can use a spread-spectrum PLL to reduce interference with high-Q receivers by spreading the energy over a larger portion of the spectrum.

The clock distribution is usually balanced so that the clock arrives at every endpoint simultaneously. The function of the PLL is to compare the distributed clock to the incoming reference clock, and vary the phase and frequency of its output until the reference and feedback clocks are phase and frequency matched.

PLLs are ubiquitous—they tune clocks in systems several feet across, as well as clocks in small portions of individual chips. Sometimes the reference clock may not actually be a pure clock at all, but rather a data stream with enough transitions that the PLL is able to recover a regular clock from that stream.

Sometimes the reference clock is the same frequency as the clock driven through the clock distribution, other times the distributed clock may be some rational multiple of the reference.

The output of the multiplier contains both the sum and the difference frequency signals, and the demodulated output is obtained by low pass filtering.

Since the PLL responds only to the carrier frequencies which are very close to the VCO output, a PLL AM detector exhibits a high degree of selectivity and noise immunity which is not possible with conventional peak type AM demodulators.

One desirable property of all PLLs is that the reference and feedback clock edges be brought into very close alignment.

The average difference in time between the phases of the two signals when the PLL has achieved lock is called the static phase offset also called the steady-state phase error.

The variance between these phases is called tracking jitter. Ideally, the static phase offset should be zero, and the tracking jitter should be as low as possible.

Some technologies are known to perform better than others in this regard. The best digital PLLs are constructed with emitter-coupled logic ECL elements, at the expense of high power consumption.

Another desirable property of all PLLs is that the phase and frequency of the generated clock be unaffected by rapid changes in the voltages of the power and ground supply lines, as well as the voltage of the substrate on which the PLL circuits are fabricated.

This is called substrate and supply noise rejection. The higher the noise rejection, the better. To further improve the phase noise of the output, an injection locked oscillator can be employed following the VCO in the PLL.

In most cellular handsets this function has been largely integrated into a single integrated circuit to reduce the cost and size of the handset.

However, due to the high performance required of base station terminals, the transmission and reception circuits are built with discrete components to achieve the levels of performance required.

GSM local oscillator modules are typically built with a frequency synthesizer integrated circuit and discrete resonator VCOs. A phase detector compares two input signals and produces an error signal which is proportional to their phase difference.

The error signal is then low-pass filtered and used to drive a VCO which creates an output phase. The output is fed through an optional divider back to the input of the system, producing a negative feedback loop.

If the output phase drifts, the error signal will increase, driving the VCO phase in the opposite direction so as to reduce the error.

Thus the output phase is locked to the phase at the other input. This input is called the reference. Analog phase locked loops are generally built with an analog phase detector, low pass filter and VCO placed in a negative feedback configuration.

A non-integer multiple of the reference frequency can also be created by replacing the simple divide-by- N counter in the feedback path with a programmable pulse swallowing counter.

The oscillator generates a periodic output signal. Assume that initially the oscillator is at nearly the same frequency as the reference signal.

If the phase from the oscillator falls behind that of the reference, the phase detector changes the control voltage of the oscillator so that it speeds up.

Likewise, if the phase creeps ahead of the reference, the phase detector changes the control voltage to slow down the oscillator.

Since initially the oscillator may be far from the reference frequency, practical phase detectors may also respond to frequency differences, so as to increase the lock-in range of allowable inputs.

A phase detector PD generates a voltage, which represents the phase difference between two signals. The PD output voltage is used to control the VCO such that the phase difference between the two inputs is held constant, making it a negative feedback system.

For instance, the frequency mixer produces harmonics that adds complexity in applications where spectral purity of the VCO signal is important.

The resulting unwanted spurious sidebands, also called " reference spurs " can dominate the filter requirements and reduce the capture range well below or increase the lock time beyond the requirements.

In these applications the more complex digital phase detectors are used which do not have as severe a reference spur component on their output.

Also, when in lock, the steady-state phase difference at the inputs using this type of phase detector is near 90 degrees. In PLL applications it is frequently required to know when the loop is out of lock.

The more complex digital phase-frequency detectors usually have an output that allows a reliable indication of an out of lock condition. It can also be used in an analog sense with only slight modification to the circuitry.

The block commonly called the PLL loop filter usually a low pass filter generally has two distinct functions.

The primary function is to determine loop dynamics, also called stability. This is how the loop responds to disturbances, such as changes in the reference frequency, changes of the feedback divider, or at startup.

Common considerations are the range over which the loop can achieve lock pull-in range, lock range or capture range , how fast the loop achieves lock lock time, lock-up time or settling time and damping behavior.

Depending on the application, this may require one or more of the following: Common concepts in control theory including the PID controller are used to design this function.

The second common consideration is limiting the amount of reference frequency energy ripple appearing at the phase detector output that is then applied to the VCO control input.

The design of this block can be dominated by either of these considerations, or can be a complex process juggling the interactions of the two.

Often also the phase-noise is affected. All phase-locked loops employ an oscillator element with variable frequency capability.

PLLs may include a divider between the oscillator and the feedback input to the phase detector to produce a frequency synthesizer. A programmable divider is particularly useful in radio transmitter applications, since a large number of transmit frequencies can be produced from a single stable, accurate, but expensive, quartz crystal—controlled reference oscillator.

Some PLLs also include a divider between the reference clock and the reference input to the phase detector. It might seem simpler to just feed the PLL a lower frequency, but in some cases the reference frequency may be constrained by other issues, and then the reference divider is useful.

Frequency multiplication can also be attained by locking the VCO output to the N th harmonic of the reference signal. Instead of a simple phase detector, the design uses a harmonic mixer sampling mixer.

The L-Phase Multiband features 6 color-coded bands, external sidechain support with audition, Auto Release to minimize pumping, and intelligently sets the attack time based on where the band is created.

Cakewalk by BandLab is free. Get the award-winning DAW now. Overview try it free Buy now. Mixing and Mastering Designed from the ground up to be used for both mixing and mastering the L-Phase plug-ins allow for mastering level sound quality with internal bit double precision and additionally offer zero-latency non-linear mode for mixing at sample rates up to kHz.

Precision Display and Monitoring The L-Phase series feature a powerful interface with a detailed display. Additional Features Presets Equipped with professionally crafted presets and the ability to Save, Edit and Organize your own in an intuitive preset manager.

Expert Mode This is where you go under the hood and configure the L-Phase series for whatever you throw at it. Solo Mode Solo mode allows for hearing the signal of any independent band.

L-Phase Equalizer The L-Phase Equalizer features 20 color-coded bands, five filter types, and automatically picks the most common filter or EQ curve based on the frequency where the band is created.

L-Phase Multiband The L-Phase Multiband features 6 color-coded bands, external sidechain support with audition, Auto Release to minimize pumping, and intelligently sets the attack time based on where the band is created.

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