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Wenn ein Spieler die Herausfordererklasse in der Einzelwarteschlange erreicht, so steigen dessen Chancen, von einem professionellen Team rekrutiert zu werden. In addition, detailed pharmacy sale statistics have been available in Sweden since Development and spread of multiple-resistant bacterial pathogens. Da lagringstiden for legemidler i apotek er relativt kort kilde: Play William Hill Casino. Thesis for the degree of Dr. I for one hope they would be here to stay. Materia y lub po czenia do witryn WWW firm trzecich s dostarczane wy cznie z uwagi na wygod u ytkownika. Just what we can expect for the North East.. Zeigen alle 30 Felder den klassischen Smiley an, bekommst du deinen Einsatz Mal zurück. In qualsiasi momento i vostri dati verranno trattati in accordo con la Politica di tutela della privacy di Apple, compresa come riferimento nella presente Licenza e consultabile all'indirizzo:

Love them or hate them they did, that is DID, a fantastic job and saved many of the branch lines and lowering the cost of running. I have made no secret of my extreme dislike of the pacers.

In my opinion they saved the day in the 80s and early 90s. It however is now a shame that the north-south divide has got bigger and bigger over the last decade or so what with the amount of money being ploughed into rolling stock investment in the south, especially in the London and South-east.

It really does give us northerners the feel of total neglect and separation. However I think this D-Train concept might just save the day.

The south will actually do us a huge favour if this goes ahead. The D-Train could be the answer to us northerners prayers.

This concept is almost a mirror image of 80s BR and the need for a cost effective short term solution to an inerrant problem.

In 5 or so years time there will be a massive surplus of DMUs due to the mass electrification projects. Some serious decisions will then have to be made as to which of the older 80s built rolling stock will be cost effective in remaining in service.

Like the pacers the , , , s etc. The question will need to be raised as to what will be scrapped or kept.

The D-Train however will effectively be a light weight, custom built urban, interurban and country branch line unit due to the multitude of options for interior specifications.

The fact they will be new, apart from the bodyshell, bogies and motors, means that they could effectively operate for a far longer period of time than the 80s build sprinters useful lifespan.

They would ironically almost be a 21st century pacer! The light weight would seriously reduce operational costs in track access charges alone.

That coupled with the advanced engines and technology to save fuel and make them as green as possible to run. I for one hope they would be here to stay.

I will however reserve some judgement until I see the finished product. Also the 15x units will need refurbishment very soon, and cannot in any event be expected to last more than 15 years, with their wholesale replacement being needed at the following franchise renewal.

New units are going to come in the end - what is the point of delaying a few of them by investing millions in these slow and controversial Crawlers? You cannot make sensible judgements on the D Train until a prototype is in existence, these trains could turn out to be the best thing since sliced bread or total rubbish.

What we do know is that they will have decent body shells, relatively modern bogies, higher acceleration and lower top speed. All these things suggest that they may be a good train.

Overall I feel that it is a good idea but as someone said the ride quality will be awful with the fitting of secondary suspension and bearing in mind if they are limited to 60 then Pacers will be able to outstrip them at All they are doing is exasperating the problem in the sense that they are keeping the present seating layout on the D stock, why not convert them to airline style?

So tasteful Mk3s to get you home from London, with the last leg in a connecting souped up D Several people have mentioned that pacers can do 75mph.

Im not sure about class s but Im sure class s are restricted to 60mph due to safety fears. Deffo the northern ones have been restricted to 60mph for a few years now..

With the better acceleration of the D-Train, They will leave a pacer behind. The environment up on an exposed Pennine hill can be very different to a cut-and-cover London underground line.

In winter, bitterly cold and high winds; in summer, problems of solar gain! A good idea if it can be made to work reliably but why the applied front end, which adds nothing apart from weight?

The existing design is neat, fuctional and rational. Does it come up to crashworthiness standards though?

Anything is better than the Rubbish Pacers that are in use now since they were designed for a maximum 20 year life whilst the D78 was designed as a platform that was and even now could be upgraded as per the above to a useful train for the next 15 years.

This is a rare example of thinking outside the box in the modern UK rail industry - as a fellow entrepreneur I applaud it.

The Southern under Herbert Walker made a habit of recycling rolling stock, which was carried on by BR in the Bournemouth electrification. The rail industry needs this kind of independent innovation.

I know the ride quality is not great but a better interior esp seats , doors etc would make a big difference. I first saw this train newly delivered to London under ground and being tested when I was a school kid of 15years old through Elm Park Station.

I joined London Underground and passed out as a guard on then in and passed out as a driver on them in and still drive them in I do believe your getting a great train and you should get antheir 10 to 15 years use out of them as Metro camel made a good train.

So please look after them they wel do you proud. Just what we can expect for the North East.. Second hand rejects with opening doors into the saloon.

Anything that gives people new trains at a lower cost and can replace those awful pacers and have more seats and whats more produced in this country and not abroad creating more jobs must be a good thing Roll on i say and lets hopefully not wait years for them.

I vote we keep the Pacers. I know many will disagree but I actually love Pacer Trains. They are my favourite train. I love riding them.

I love the sound of the engine. I love the noises they make. I like the bus-like interior and design. I like the folding bus-style doors. I love them as functional or just as all-purpose trains.

The simple, rugged construction of the Pacers has stood them in good stead for an amazing 30 years. It will be interesting to find out how the rebuilt D Train rides on poor branch line tracks.

Try riding a pacer every day over average track might lead to a different view on Pacer ride quality. How can a 4 wheeled vehicle match bogies of D stock and most other trains?

Pollution Pacers spill onto rail patrons and houses along the track is also an issue - noise and chemical. Even at the station where a train starts, the platform number might be posted only 20 minutes before departure - or for a local train, perhaps just 10 minutes before.

This is perfectly normal. A good Idea, the trains have years of life left. I had my most uncomfortable and frightening ride on an ex-underground train in the Isle of Wight.

I really like the idea of this project; the fact that these coaches are not just going to be scrapped, that an interesting conversion is going to be carried out on them - and the satisfaction of having our curiosities satisfied when we see the final result.

This includes reduced use of antibiotics prophylactically, hygienic measures and separation of susceptible and infected patients.

Final comments A rational selection of antimicrobials aiming at maximum effect with minimum undesired side effects including selection of resistance depends on good quality data on prevalence of resistance at regional and national levels.

It is therefore somewhat disappointing that so little data can be found. Such studies should be conducted at regular intervals and information on negative trends should lead to reassessment of treatment preferences.

Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically, M7-A4, approved standard. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests M2-A6, approved standard.

Performance standards for antimicrobial disk and dilution susceptibility test for bacteria isolated from animals. Laboratory diagnosis of bacterial infections.

Clinical microbiology and infectious diseases of the dog and cat. Antimicrobial therapy in veterinary medicine. Iowa State University Press, Antibiotic susceptibility of staphylococci isolated in Swden from primary and recurring canine pyoderma.

The antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus species isolated from canine dermatitis. Veterinary Research Communications ;20 3: In vitro activity of fifteen antimicrobial agents against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus intermedius.

Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics ;19 2: Distribution of genes encoding erythromycin ribosomal methylases and an erythromycin efflux pump in epidemiologically distinct groups of staphylococci.

Bacterial resistance to macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin antibiotics by target modification. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy ;35 7: Transferability of macrolide, lincomycin and streptogramin resistances between group A, B and D streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococus aureus.

Journal of bacteriology ; Multiple antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from the urine of dogs and cats with cystitis.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association ; Antimicrobial susceptibility of selected infectious bacterial agents obtained from dogs.

Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association ;30 5: Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica isolates from cats and a comparison of the agar dilution and E-test methods.

Veterinary Microbiology ;54 1: A discrete-time model of the acquisition of antibiotic-resistant infections in hospitalized patients. Veterinary nosocomial hospital-acquired Klebsiella infections.

Antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial isolates from urinary tract infections and metritis in dogs. Compendium of continuing education suppl ;18 2: The major route of transmission of resistant microorganisms from animals to man is thought to be the food chain 1.

However, small companion animals live in close contact with humans and exchange of resistant genes between pets and man cannot be excluded.

Information about the prescription patterns of antibacterials to companion animals is therefore important, e. Aim The aim of the present study is to compile the prescription patterns of antibacterial drugs to cats and dogs in Sweden and Norway during the s.

Material and methods Wholesaler statistics from both countries were used to monitor the sale of antibacterial drugs from to In Sweden and Norway, a selection of human antibacterial drugs approved also for cats and dogs are prescribed and sold by the pharmacies.

The use of such drugs in cats and dogs are therefore included in the wholesaler statistics of human drugs. In Sweden, all veterinary prescriptions handled by the pharmacies have been entered into a common data base system since January From this data base additional data were obtained from all veterinary prescriptions in Sweden in and on the number of prescriptions i.

The antibacterial drugs included in the study were classified according to the ATCvet classification system 2. In , seven preparations representing five active substances were approved for oral administration to cats and dogs.

The corresponding figures in were 15 and 11, respectively. In Norway, no similar trend was observed; eight preparations representing eight active substances were approved during the same period.

An increase in the use of beta-lactam drugs during the period was noted. This can partly be explained by the approval in of amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid.

However, the use of beta-lactam drugs was dominated by single substance preparations of ampicillin and amoxicillin. The amounts of sulfonamides used in combination with trimethoprim and of the quinolones were slightly increased during the study period.

The use of lincosamides, licensed during the study period, increased sharply. The corresponding figures in Norway are presented in Table II. The two dominating pharmacological groups used during the study period were trimethoprim or baquiloprim in combination with sulfonamides QJ01E , and the lincosamides QJ01F.

The beta-lactam drugs were introduced in and the sales figures of this group have since then increased, while the use of lincosamides has decreased.

In small animal practise, the usage of drugs approved for humans may, with regard to certain drugs, be extensive. The vast majority of prescribed antibacterial drugs in Sweden in and for systemic use in cats and dogs were approved for veterinary use.

Eighty-eight percent of the packets of antibacterial drugs prescribed for use in cats were approved veterinary drugs.

Discussion Sweden and Norway have the advantage of having access to sale statistics of veterinary drugs from wholesalers. This situation is unusual in most other European countries.

In addition, detailed pharmacy sale statistics have been available in Sweden since This may be utilised to facilitate the interpre- 27 Bakgrundsdokumentation The prescription patterns of antibacterial drugs to cats and dogs in Sweden and Norway Table I.

In the present study prescription data from Sweden, sorted according to animal species, i. It is of great value is unable to study the prescription pattern of antibacterial drugs in one particular animal species.

This is important, not only in the surveillance of the usage of antibacterial drugs and of bacterial resistance, but also in other areas where exposure data is needed, e.

Wholesaler statistics have certain limitations that need to be focused on. When a drug is authorised for both veterinary and human use under the same brand name, i.

The consequence of this is that wholesaler statistics is not able to distinguish between drugs sold for human and veterinary use.

Fucidin tablets and oral solution approved in Sweden and Calcipen tablets and solution approved in Norway are two examples of this.

To be able to identify whether the drug in question is used in humans or in veterinary patients it is ne- 72 0 61 12 9 18 69 1 0 79 16 28 69 1 0 21 34 cessary to look at each prescription.

When discussing trends in the use of antibacterial drugs in small companion animals it is also necessary to know the approximate population size of the animals of interest.

In Sweden, the amount of cats and dogs has been relatively stable during the nineties. In , the number of cats was 1.

The number of dogs appears to have increased somewhat from in to in 3,4. Corresponding data from Norway is not available. Comparisons between the amounts used in Sweden and Norway can therefore not be made.

From the Swedish prescription data it was clearly seen that the majority of the antibacterial drugs chosen by veterinarians was approved for veterinary use.

However, the opposite could also be found as for example with the cephalosporins, because of lack of approved specialities for veterinary use in the beginning of the study period.

However, this was not the situation in Norway, where the beta-lactam drugs were approved for veterinary use for the first time in Instead the sulfonamides group in combination with trimethoprim or baquiloprim QJ01E were the drugs of choice when prescribing an oral antibiotic to cats and dogs.

Impact of antibiotic use in animal feeding on resistance. Acknowledgement Apoteket AB, Sweden is acknowledged for providing sale statistics.

Antibakterielle legemidler som interfererer med bakteriell celleveggsyntese betalaktamantibiotika Penicilliner: Amoksicillin, ampicillin, fenoksymetylpenicillin, pivampicillin, prokainpenicillin.

Bakterienes cellevegg er bygget opp av peptidoglykan, en kjemisk forbindelse som ikke forekommer i eukaryote celler.

Dette er bakgrunnen for den selektive toksisitet av betalaktamantibiotika. Bakteriecellen lyserer etter at en inhibitor av et autolytisk enzym i celleveggen inaktiveres.

Ingen betalaktamaseresistente penicilliner er godkjent for bruk til hund og katt, men det finnes godkjent en kombinasjon mellom et bredspektret penicillin amoksicillin og en betalaktamaseinhibitor klavulansyre.

Cefaleksin og cefadroksil er syrestabile cefalosporiner som er aktive overfor mange grampositive og noen gramnegative bakterier.

Sulfadiazin, sulfadimetoksin, sulfadoksin, sulfametizol, sulfametoksypyridazin. Denne forskjellen utnyttes for selektiv toksisitet.

Sulfonamider er derivater av sulfanilamid, en strukturanalog av p-aminobenzosyre PABA som er utgangspunktet for syntese av folinsyre hos bakterier.

Sulfonamidene konkurrerer med PABA om et enzym som er involvert i folinsyresyntesen, dihydropteroatsyntetase. Sulfonamidene er bredspektrede og bakteriostatiske, og effekten er avhengig av at vertsorganismens immunapparat fungerer adekvat.

Denne omdannelsesvei er tilsynelatende identisk hos bakterier og pattedyrceller. Bakviloprim og trimetoprim er bredspektrede og bakteriostatiske.

Denne prosessen er prinsipielt identisk i bakterier og pattedyrceller. Det bakterielle enzymet er imidlertid strukturelt forskjellig fra det mammalske.

Selv om den presise virkningsmekanismen er uklar, inhiberer kinolonene selektivt det bakterielle enzymet og har bredspektret baktericid effekt. Denne forskjellen i ribosomstruktur er grunnlaget for selektiv toksisitet for en rekke antibakterielle legemidler.

Konkurranse med transfer-RNA for tilhefting til ribosomet oksytetracyklin, doksycyklin , unormal codon-: Andre antibakterielle legemidler Metronidazol er et nitroimidazol som hemmer syntesen av celleveggskomponenter, og har baktericid effekt overfor et bredt spektrum av anaerobe bakterier.

For baktericide substanser opprettholdes ikke alltid MIC-verdien i plasma, men til tross for dette kan det terapeutiske resultatet bli tilfredsstillende.

Noen unntak finnes dog tilgjengelige i litteraturen. Ampicillin og kloramfenikol kan tjene som eksempler. Dette gjenspeiles i doseringsanbefalingene.

I Sverige er den parenterale formuleringen godkjent til hund. Plasmaproteinbinding hos hund er ca. Ampicillin er godkjent til hund og katt i form av preparater til injeksjon N og peroral administrasjon S.

Plasmaproteinbinding er angitt til ca. Ekskresjonen skjer hovedsakelig over nyrene av umetabolisert ampicillin. Pivampicillin er en ampicillinester som er godkjent for oral administrasjon N til hund.

Fenoksymetylpenicillin penicillin V er godkjent til hund og katt i form av preparater til oral administrasjon S,N. Fenoksymetylpenicillin er syrestabilt og gir maksimal plasmakonsentrasjon ca.

Ekskresjonen skjer hovedsakelig over nyrene i umetabolisert form. Klavulansyre er godkjent til hund og katt i orale S,N og injektabile S kombinasjonspreparater sammen med amoksicillin.

Klavulansyre inhiberer flere betalaktamaser som forekommer hos gramnegative bakterier og stafylokokker og kan derved beskytte betalaktamantibiotika mot nedbrytning.

I likhet med amoksicillin er klavulansyre syrestabil, absorberes raskt etter oral administrasjon og distribueres til de fleste vev bortsett fra CNS.

Klavulansyre metaboliseres for en stor grad hos hund. Hvorvidt hovedmetabolitten har betalaktamaseinhiberende effekt er uklart.

Cefadroksil er et betalaktamaseresistent og syrestabilt cefalosporin som er godkjent for oral administrasjon S til hund og katt. Biotilgjengeligheten er angitt til ca.

Ekskresjonen skjer hovedsakelig over nyrene i uforandret form. Sulfadiazin passerer placenta og distribueres til melk.

Sulfametizol er godkjent til hund og katt for oral administrasjon N. Videre angis det at ca. Sulfametoksypyridazin er godkjent til hund og katt for oral administrasjon N.

Ekskresjonen skjer hovedsakelig via nyrene. Trimetoprim passerer placenta og distribueres til melk. Kinolonantibiotika Enrofloksasin er godkjent for oral N,S og parenteral N,S administrasjon til hund og katt.

Enrofloksasin er et fluorsubstituert kinolonderivat som absorberes raskt etter oral administrasjon. Ekskresjonen skjer via urin ca.

Doksycyklin utskilles vesentlig via feces i inaktiv form. Det er angitt at ca. Vd for hund og katt angis til ca.

Makrolider og karbohydratantibiotika Klindamycin er registret for oral administrasjon til hund og katt S. Linkomycin er registret for oral administrasjon til hund og katt N.

Ekskresjonen skjer via galle, feces og urin av uendret forbindelse og metabolitter. Spiramycin er registret for oral administrasjon til hund og katt N.

Videre angis det at ekskresjon av uendret morsubstans og metabolitter vesentlig skjer via galle. Ekskresjonen skjer hovedsakelig via galle i uendret form.

Gentamicin er godkjent til hund og katt S formulert som injeksjonspreparat og krem for dematologisk bruk. Absorbsjonen etter topisk applikasjon er minimal.

Fucidinsyre er godkjent til hund og katt formulert for dermatologisk bruk S,N. Ett preparat formulert til oral administrasjon S er godkjent.

Metronidazol er godkjent til hund og katt formulert som preparat til oral administrasjon N. Eliminasjonen skjer via urin og feces av morsubstans og metabolitter.

The Veterinary formulary, 4. Veterinary Drug Handbook Iowa state University Press, Forskrivning av andre betalaktamantibiotika enn penicilliner, samt makrolider har holdt seg noenlunde konstant i dette tidsrommet.

Mange lette infeksjoner som otitter, sinusitter og cystitter helbredes ofte spontant, uten antibiotika. Dette forutsetter at den kliniske tilstanden er rimelig stabil.

Ved gramnegative infeksjoner kan man velge blant cefalosporiner, aztreonam, trimetoprimsulfametoksazol eller aminoglykosider.

Aminoglykosider og aztreonam finnes bare for parenteral behandling og krever innleggelse i sykehus. Glykopeptider og aminoglykosider kan bare utleveres til sykehus eller etter resept fra sykehus.

Hver infeksjonstype har sin optimale behandlingstid. Noen infeksjonstyper, for eksempel artritter, osteomyelitter og endokarditter, krever betydelig lengre behandlingstid, ofte flere uker.

Disse krever sykehusinnleggelse for parenteral behandling. Karbapenemer Disse er meget bredspektrede. I tillegg kan aerobe gramnegative stavbakterier som Pseudomonas aeruginosa erverve karbapenemresistens.

Alvorlige infeksjoner med Enterobacter spp, Serratia spp, og Pseudomonas aeruginosa sammen med et annet spesifikt anti-pseudomonaspreparat.

Karbapenemer kan bare utleveres til sykehus. Glykopeptider Glykopeptider er viktige preparater ved vanskelige stafylokokkinfeksjoner og andre vanskelige infeksjoner med andre grampositive kokker.

De kan bare utleveres til sykehus eller etter resept fra sykehus. De har liten terapeutisk indeks og er potensielt toksiske.

Aminoglykosider kan bare utleveres til sykehus. Fluorokinoloner Fluorokinoloner er effektive mot en lang rekke mikrober.

Fusidin FusidinFucidin er meget smalspektret med god effekt mot gule stafylokokker. Resistensen mot fucidin er lav og har holdt seg stabil i Norge A.

Profylakse ved kirurgiske inngrep. Retningslinjene derfra finnes i litteraturreferanse nr. Development and spread of multiple-resistant bacterial pathogens.

Do antimicobials increase the carriage rate of penicillin resistant pneumococci in children? Cross sectional prevalence study. Antibiotic prescription in primary care: Fam Pract ; Aker sykehus, Veiledning i bruk av antibiotika.

Haukeland Sykehus, Legemiddelkomiteen, , Nytt fra Statens legemiddelkontroll ; The effects of changes in the consumption of macrolide antibiotics on erythromycin resistance in group A streptococci in Finland.

Ampicillin och amoxcicillin fungerar ofta bra. Spiramycin koncentreras i saliv, gingiva och ben. Periodontal disease and oral microbiology.

The pathobiology of periodontal diseases may affect systemic diseases: Inversion of a paradigm. Annals of Periodontology ; 3 nr. A colour atlas of veterinary dentistry and oral surgery.

Hvilken type antibiotika skal velges? Valg av antibakterielle midler bestemmes av: Andre bivirkninger som immunmediert polyartritt og keratoconjunctivitis sicca kan av og til observeres.

Det er registrert lite resistens mot dette medikamentet i Norge. Metronidazol har et bredt aktivitetsspekter overfor anaerobe bakterier. Denne effekten er av vesentlig betydning for bruk av metronidazol ved inflammatoriske tarmlidelser.

Bivirkninger observeres sjelden, men kvalme, oppkast og neurotoksiske symptomer er observert hos hund og katt. Medikamentet er karsinogent og mutagent hos laboratoriedyr.

Tetracykliner benyttes ved behandling av bakteriell overvekst i tynntarmen. Dette medikamentet kan gi bivirkninger i form av oppkast.

Kloramfenikol er angitt ved behandling av human salmonellose. Clindamycin er effektivt overfor mange grampositive aerobe og de fleste anaerobe bakterier.

Clindamycin hemmer vekst av sensitive organismer i opptil to uker etter avsluttet behandling. Det er imidlertid ikke dokumentert at fluorokvinolonene har bedre effekt en kombinasjonen av trimetoprim-sulfa.

Norfloksacin og enrofloksacin har et potent gramnegativt spekter. Bare de bakterier som holder til i ventrikkelen har patologisk betydning.

Flere ulike arter av disse spiralformede organismene er isolert fra pattedyr, inkludert hund og katt. Til eradikering av H.

Dette er en kombinasjon av to antibiotika med enten en vismutforbindelse eller en syrehemmer, som ranitidin eller omeprazol. Et zoonotisk potensiale er derfor muligens til stede.

Tarm Salmonella Klinisk salmonellose forekommer heller sjelden sammenliknet med forekomst av asymptomatiske eller subkliniske tilstander.

Slike predisponerende faktorer inkluderer stress og eventuelt samtidig infeksjon med andre tarmpatogener, som parvovirus, coronavirus, Salmonella spp og intestinale parasitter.

Systemiske symptomer som oppkast, anoreksi og nedstemthet kan observeres. Unge dyr, spesielt i kennel, affiseres hyppigst og gjerne med de alvorligste symptomene.

Dette kan skyldes reinfeksjon, eventuelt resistens. I slike tilfeller anbefales behandling med tetracykliner. Organismen koloniserer distale del av tynntarmen og kraniale del av colon.

I enkelte tilfeller kan de imidlertid forbli mer eller mindre kroniske. Antbiotika er vanligvis ikke indisert ved denne typen infeksjoner.

Til katter med leukopeni anbefales en kombinasjon av penicillin og aminoglykosider. De fleste infeksjoner med Giardia hos hund og katt assosieres vanligvis ikke med kliniske symptomer.

Feces er gjerne lys, illeluktende og fettrik. Sammensetningen av bakteriene endres mot en mer anaerob flora, lik den som normalt observeres i colon.

Antibiotikaterapi er derfor i utgangspunktet ikke indisert. Sykdommen er en zoonose. Likeledes mer lokaltvirkende medikamenter som antisekretoriske eller adsorberende medikamenter.

Probl Vet Med ;2: Textbook of veterinary internal medicine. WB Saunders Company, Infectious diseases of the dog and cat, 2nd ed.

Criteria for selection of antibiotics. Zur Antibiotikabehandlung bei Durchfallerkrankungen von Hund und Katze. Hepatitis bij de Hond; een overzicht.

Tijdschr Diergeneeskd ; Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in dogs with chronic intestinal disease. VoodooDreams - Bonus gewagered aber Auszahlung storniert!

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Pasilanraitio 9 B, 7. Gold Ahoy peliautomaatti pokerista LottoLottosuomi3pv Veikkaus-kortilla alennusta Suomen Hostellijarjeston hostellikortista: We most certainly intend to produce a train which is perceived by passengers to be just like a new train.

Look at the Chiltern Mk 3s, for example. The same people are involved. Stefanie runs our business publication RailReview, which was launched in She joined RAIL in and still writes features for the magazine covering various topics, as well as planning content for our portfolio of events.

Finding diesel engines that comply with the proposed EU legislation was supposed to be difficult. The bogies are very track unfriendly so will attract high track access charges, however I suppose if they are 60mph max that will offset that a little.

The ride quality will be awful unless they do something like adding some additional secondary suspension. If they are like new trains keep them down in that there London.

London Underground receive massive government subsidies so why are the D78s being scrapped with 15 years life remaining?

StPaddy, London Underground did not receive massive subsidies. What does the Northern Rail fares cover? Get that massive Northern Chip off your shoulders.

This is similar to the Northern subsidy if one includes the Network Grant, whose apportionment to Northern is ludicrously overstated.

Northern rail users are angry about London eating all the pies, and the South West and East Anglia are also complaining. The maximum linespeed on the harrogate line is 60mph apart from yhe single line sections, so your journey will not be decelerated!!

They will have toilets. Pacers can do 75mph. D-trains will have a 60mph speed limit — already being called Crawlers.

And how comfortable is D78 stock with its tube-style bogies even at 60? A 2-car D-train would have fewer seats than a 2-car Pacer.

So you need at least three cars. A longer train might be made up by adding trailers — reducing acceleration and eroding the claimed advantage of improved acceleration.

Reliability in service must be questionable - the "white van" diesel is unproven in the confined space under a D78 vehicle. Most of the sample configurations have no toilets: Crawlers might be suitable for short branch lines.

I suggest parts of East Anglia and non-electrified Thames Valley branches. See how commuters in Henley, Marlow and Windsor like them.

They are used to something better. The North also deserves better. The main factor is that it is a temporary solution. Not to mention the entire fleet of Meridians and countless HSTs.

The question is this, do us in the north continue to be seperated from the south to the extreme by keeping our pacers, or do we accept a little gesture from them and accept some pretty decent trains made new inside.

The sad truth regarding the toilet issue is that if the journey time end to end is below a certain time limit there is no requirement for a toilet.

Do bare in mind however that there are some pacers knocking about that are actually now restricted to 65mph.

London commuters complained endlessly about the s poor seating capacity. As a railwayman with 13 years experience in various areas of the rail industry this is an interesting concept.

Ageing rolling stock, under-used branch lines etc. Thus the pacer was born. Love them or hate them they did, that is DID, a fantastic job and saved many of the branch lines and lowering the cost of running.

I have made no secret of my extreme dislike of the pacers. In my opinion they saved the day in the 80s and early 90s. It however is now a shame that the north-south divide has got bigger and bigger over the last decade or so what with the amount of money being ploughed into rolling stock investment in the south, especially in the London and South-east.

It really does give us northerners the feel of total neglect and separation. However I think this D-Train concept might just save the day.

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