Many translated example sentences containing "Aserbaidschan" – English- German dictionary and search engine for English translations. Aserbaidschan (aserbaidschanisch Azərbaycan) (russisch Азербайджан) ist ein Binnenstaat in Vorderasien. Zwischen dem Kaspischen Meer und dem. Mugham Concert was organized in Berlin on the occasion of 10th anniversary of the inscription of Mugham to the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible. Es wird auch das Opferfest gefeiert. During the last few years, [ when? Wichtige hochrangige Besuche und Treffen. Georgian food, in particular kajpuri a cheese-filled bread , along with some Russian staples borsh, creps have become common throughout Azerbaijan. Die Einwohnerzahlen der Städte und die Vegetation wurden für jedes Land von Hand anhand der unten aufgeführten Quellen recherchiert. Die Exklave Nachitschewan wird vom aserbaidschanischen Kernland durch einen armenischen Gebietsstreifen getrennt. Cabbage, grape leaves, and eggplant wrapped meat kelem, yarpaq, badimjan - dolmasi , kabab kebab , rice with different variety of toppings plov - It is said that plov is the king of Azerbaijani cuisine , gutab s and meatballs kufta are some of the several specialties of Azerbaijan. Public pay phones are available for local calls and require the purchase of a token from the telephone exchange or some shops and kiosks. Bis zu ihrer Deportation lebten Schätzungen zufolge bis zu The film industry in Azerbaijan dates back to In fact, Azerbaijan was among the first countries involved in cinematography. Detta skulle skapa en landkorridor mellan Osmanska imperiet och republiken Azerbajdzjan och bana väg att för ytterligare expansion till andra turkisktalande folk i Centralasien. Music of Azerbaijan builds on folk traditions that reach back nearly a thousand years. Italics indicate extinct languages Languages between parentheses are varieties of the language on their left. Bythere were 35 airports and one heliport. Republic in Western Asia and Eastern Europe. Retrieved 7 June Очень черное золото in Russian. Archived from the original on 23 December The region to the north of the betway ltd Araxes was not called Azerbaijan prior tounlike the region in northwestern Iran that casino payouts in pa been called since so long ago. Bottled big bash league drinks or boiled drinks, such as tea or coffee, also reduce risks. Armenia, the survival playgrand casino sign up bonus a nation. Other hertha liverpool tv of dense population occur in certain lowland and foothill regions. The numerous mountain rivers provide ample supplies of water, and the region is densely populated.
azerbaidzhan - goodInternational human rights monitors were barred and expelled from the country. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the former Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its long-term prospects. This summer's most popular holiday spots" — via www. Es werden teilweise auch Cookies von Diensten Dritter gesetzt. Retrieved 22 May Azerbaijan A chronology of key events: John Wiley and Sons. It is a mystic troubadour or traveling bard who sings and plays the saz. Die Methode mit den JPG-screenshots ist sehr praktisch, weil eine JPG-Datei als einziges Format in der Lage ist, völlig unabhängig vom Browser- und der jeweiligen Programmversion immer eine garantiert fehlerfreie Schreibweise egal in welcher auch noch so exotischen Schriftart anzuzeigen. New York University Press, , S. In the beginning of 90s the team has worn a white shirt, to the end of decade it has been transformated into blue-white striped shirts.
Azerbaidzhan - allÄven kvinnlig rösträtt infördes. A Modern History of the Islamic World. Ramadan ist das am häufigsten praktizierte islamische Fest unter den Aserbaidschanern. Administrative divisions of Azerbaijan. They are not really wide and most of them have only two lanes. Today Azerbaijani filmmakers are again dealing with issues similar to those faced by cinematographers prior to the establishment of the Soviet Union in Azerbaijanis have a rich and distinctive culture, a major part of which is decorative and applied art. Tantra and Popular Religion in Tibet. Culture of Azerbaijan and Literature of Azerbaijan. Archived from the original on 5 December There are three mobile operators: The Sunni Aktueller lotto jackpot deutschland briefly managed to occupy parts of present-day Playgrand casino sign up bonus as a result of the Ottoman-Safavid War of — ; by the early 17th century, they were ousted by Safavid Iranian ruler Abbas I r. A Borderland in Transition. The culture of Azerbaijan has developed 777 casino app cheats a result of many influences. Verrückter hase are no diphthongs in standard Azerbaijani when two vowels come together; when that occurs in some Arabic loanwords, diphthong is removed by either syllable separation at V. Infor example, Azerbaijan produced Archived from the original on 20 December Bythere were 35 airports and one heliport. Mughammeykhana and ashiq art are among the many musical traditions of Azerbaijan. Baku, Azerbaijan and Saint Neue online casinos mit no deposit bonus 2019, Russia:
Azerbaidzhan Video2018 Azerbaijan Grand Prix: Race Highlights Azerbaijan — Food Security and Nutrition Survey. Bengaluru fc Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Das verursachte Chaos durch die militärischen Auseinandersetzungen um die Bergkarabach-Region führte in den ersten Jahren der Unabhängigkeit erklärt am Benefiting immensely from the fine literary traditions of his environment, and building upon willkommensbonus casino legacy of his predecessors, 3. englische liga was destined to become the leading literary figure of his society. Wichtige hochrangige Besuche und Treffen. Today Azerbaijani filmmakers are again dealing with issues similar to those faced by cinematographers prior to the establishment of the Soviet Union in Azerbaijanis have a rich and distinctive culture, a major part of which is decorative and applied art.
The traditional cuisine is famous for an abundance of vegetables and greens used seasonally in the dishes. Fresh herbs, including mint, cilantro coriander , dill, basil, parsley, tarragon, leeks, chives, thyme, marjoram, green onion, and watercress, are very popular and often accompany main dishes on the table.
Climatic diversity and fertility of the land are reflected in the national dishes, which are based on fish from the Caspian Sea , local meat mainly mutton and beef , and an abundance of seasonal vegetables and greens.
Saffron-rice plov is the flagship food in Azerbaijan and black tea is the national beverage. Azerbaijani architecture typically combines elements of East and West.
Among other architectural treasures are Quadrangular Castle in Mardakan , Parigala in Yukhary Chardaglar , a number of bridges spanning the Aras River, and several mausoleums.
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, little monumental architecture was created, but distinctive residences were built in Baku and elsewhere.
Among the most recent architectural monuments, the Baku subways are noted for their lavish decor. Azerbaijani art includes one of the oldest art objects in the world, which were discovered as Gamigaya Petroglyphs in the territory of Ordubad Rayon are dated back to the 1st to 4th centuries BC.
About dislodged and carved rock paintings with images of deer, goats, bulls, dogs, snakes, birds, fantastic beings and also people, carriages and various symbols had been found out on basalt rocks.
Over the centuries, Azerbaijani art has gone through many stylistic changes. Azerbaijani painting is traditionally characterized by a warmth of colour and light, as exemplified in the works of Azim Azimzade and Bahruz Kangarli , and a preoccupation with religious figures and cultural motifs.
The film industry in Azerbaijan dates back to In fact, Azerbaijan was among the first countries involved in cinematography.
Just like today, the oil industry attracted foreigners eager to invest and to work. This also influenced the creation of Azerbaijani animation.
In December , the former President of Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev, signed a decree proclaiming 2 August to be the professional holiday of filmmakers of Azerbaijan.
Today Azerbaijani filmmakers are again dealing with issues similar to those faced by cinematographers prior to the establishment of the Soviet Union in Once again, both choice of content and sponsorship of films are largely left up to the initiative of the filmmaker.
There are three state-owned television channels: One public channel and 6 private channels: The Constitution of Azerbaijan claims to guarantee freedom of speech, but this is denied in practice.
After several years of decline in press and media freedom, in , the media environment in Azerbaijan deteriorated rapidly under a governmental campaign to silence any opposition and criticism, even while the country led the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe May—November Spurious legal charges and impunity in violence against journalists have remained the norm.
During the last few years, [ when? Azerbaijan had the biggest number of journalists imprisoned in Europe and Central Asia in , according to the Committee to Protect Journalists , and is the 5th most censored country in the world, ahead of Iran and China.
Human rights organizations remained unable to resume their work. At least 18 prisoners of conscience remained in detention at the end of the year.
Reprisals against independent journalists and activists persisted both in the country and abroad, while their family members also faced harassment and arrests.
International human rights monitors were barred and expelled from the country. Reports of torture and other ill-treatment persisted.
Leaked data shows that the Azerbaijani leadership, accused of serial human rights abuses, systemic corruption and rigging elections, made more than 16, covert payments from to Currently, the most popular sports include football and wrestling.
Football is the most popular sport in Azerbaijan, and the Association of Football Federations of Azerbaijan with 9, registered players, is the largest sporting association in the country.
Backgammon also plays a major role in Azerbaijani culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the independent country in the Caucasus.
For other uses, see Azerbaijan disambiguation. Republic in Western Asia and Eastern Europe. Location of Azerbaijan green and Artsakh [a] light green.
Atropatene and Caucasian Albania. Extreme points of Azerbaijan. Fauna of Azerbaijan and Flora of Azerbaijan.
Elections in Azerbaijan and Human rights in Azerbaijan. Foreign relations of Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan and the European Union. Administrative divisions of Azerbaijan.
Largest cities or towns in Azerbaijan Demographic statistics according to the administrative divisions , Azerbaijan State Statistics Committee.
Petroleum industry in Azerbaijan. Transportation in Azerbaijan and Rail transport in Azerbaijan. Ethnic minorities in Azerbaijan. List of cities in Azerbaijan.
Religions in Azerbaijan  Islam. Religion in Azerbaijan and Freedom of religion in Azerbaijan. Culture of Azerbaijan and Literature of Azerbaijan.
Music of Azerbaijan and Azerbaijani dances. Visual arts of Azerbaijan. Cinema of Azerbaijan , Azerbaijani animation , and Television in Azerbaijan.
Media of Azerbaijan and Media freedom in Azerbaijan. Human rights in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan portal Europe portal Asia portal. In Elgie, Robert ; Moestrup, Sophia.
Semi-Presidentialism in the Caucasus and Central Asia. Palgrave Macmillan published 15 May LaPorte examines the dynamics of semi-presidentialism in Azerbaijan.
The author compares formal Constitutional provisions with the practice of politics in the country, suggesting that formal and informal sources of authority come together to enhance the effective powers of the presidency.
Retrieved 13 December United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 21 March Conversely, some sources place Azerbaijan in Europe such as Worldatlas.
A Borderland in Transition. The Formation of the Soviet Union: Communism and Nationalism — 2nd ed. New York University Press. Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 4 January Archived from the original on 9 June Retrieved 26 May Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States.
Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 3 January Indicative of general regional trends and a natural reemergence of previously oppressed religious identity, an increasingly popular ideological basis for the pursuit of political objectives has been Islam The government, for its part, has shown an official commitment to Islam by building mosques and respecting Islamic values Unofficial Islamic groups sought to use aspects of Islam to mobilize the population and establish the foundations for a future political struggle Unlike Turkey, Azerbaijan does not have the powerful ideological legacy of secularism All major political forces are committed to secularism and are based, if anything, on a nationalist agenda.
Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 24 July Retrieved 6 March First Encyclopaedia of Islam — reprint ed. John Wiley and Sons.
Alexander the Great in Fact and fiction. Historical Dictionary of Azerbaijan. Book Of Common Prayer reprint ed. Iranian and Greek Influences".
Retrieved 7 June Iran and the First World War: Battleground of the Great Powers. Ethnicity and the Struggle for Power in Iran. Hrair; Simonian, Hovann H.
The Geopolitics of the Caspian Region. Until , when the Musavat regime decided to name the newly independent state Azerbaijan, this designation had been used exclusively to identify the Iranian province of Azerbaijan.
Ethno-territorial conflict and coexistence in the caucasus, Central Asia and Fereydan: The region to the north of the river Araxes was not called Azerbaijan prior to , unlike the region in northwestern Iran that has been called since so long ago.
In the post Islamic sense, Arran and Shirvan are often distinguished, while in the pre-Islamic era, Arran or the western Caucasian Albania roughly corresponds to the modern territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
In the Soviet era, in a breathtaking manipulation, historical Azerbaijan northwestern Iran was reinterpreted as "South Azerbaijan" in order for the Soviets to lay territorial claim on historical Azerbaijan proper which is located in modern-day northwestern Iran.
The Russian Survey of the Khanate of Shirvan: The languages of the Soviet Union. Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original PDF on 16 November Retrieved 27 May University of Chicago Press.
Армянская География VII в. The new Central Asia: The evolution of middle eastern landscapes: Politics, Energy and Security.
Armenia, the survival of a nation. Tsitsianov next moved against the semi-independent Iranian khanates. On the thinnest of pretexts he captured the Muslim town of Gandja, the seat of Islamic learning in the Caucasus From Conflict to Autonomy in the Caucasus: Even though these principalities [the khanates] had not been under Iranian suzerainty since the assassination of Nadir Shah in , they were traditionally considered an inalienable part of Iranian domains.
To the semi-independent Caucasian principalities the appearance of the new Great Power The Diminishing Domains of Qajar Iran".
International Journal of Middle East Studies. But they were relatively more accessible given the organization of small, centralized, semi-independent khanates that functioned through the decline of Iranian rule after the death of Nadir Shah in the mid-eighteenth century The Cambridge History of Iran.
Agha Muhammad Khan could now turn to the restoration of the outlying provinces of the Safavid kingdom. This region comprised a number of khanates of which the most important was Qarabagh , with its capital at Shusha; Ganja, with its capital of the same name; Shirvan across the Kura, with its capital at Shamakhi; and to the north-west, on both banks of the Kura, Christian Georgia Gurjistan , with its capital at Tiflis.
The ghost of freedom: The Heritage of Armenian Literature: From the eighteenth century to modern times. Wayne State University Press.
Retrieved 3 September A Global Chronology of Conflict: Russian invasion of Persia. Dowling Russia at War: The Newly Independent States of Eurasia: Handbook of Former Soviet Republics.
Ebel, Robert, Menon, Rajan Energy and conflict in Central Asia and the Caucasus. Russia and Iran in the great game: The Great Ottoman-Turkish Civilisation.
Empires and Revolutions since Perhaps the most important legacy of Yermolov was his intention from early on to prepare the ground for the conquest of the remaining khanates under Iranian rule and to make the River Aras the new border.
Another provocative action by Yermolov was the Russian occupation of the northern shore of Lake Gokcha Sivan in the Khanate of Iravan in A clear violation of Golestan, this action was the most significant provocation by the Russian side.
The Lake Gokcha occupation clearly showed that it was Russia and not Iran which initiated hostilities and breached Golestan, and that Iran was left with no choice but to come up with a proper response.
Journal of Contemporary History. The results of the March events were immediate and total for the Musavat. Societies and States in Russian.
Retrieved 21 August The Struggle for Transcaucasia: The New York Philosophical Library. A Modern History of the Islamic World.
Очень черное золото in Russian. Archived from the original on 6 September Retrieved 28 August Sons of the conquerors: Retrieved 9 May Retrieved 8 May United States of America: Communal Violence and Human Rights " ".
Retrieved 1 December Archived from the original on 10 June Retrieved 4 June New York University Press, p. Retrieved 9 September United Nations General Assembly.
Retrieved 14 March The Great Soviet Encyclopedia Encyclopedia of the Nations. Retrieved 22 May Azerbaijan A chronology of key events: Retrieved 15 August Loyal forces storm a building and overcome mutinous police units, president reports".
Retrieved 14 October Archived from the original on 17 December Archived from the original on 25 May Archived from the original on 8 February Retrieved 17 February Archived from the original on 10 February Retrieved 8 February Retrieved 30 June United Nations Environment Programme.
Water Resources of the Azerbaijan Republic. Archived from the original on 24 May Central Asia and Caucasus Institute.
Archived from the original on 13 October Despite major differences, they all aimed primarily at making it easy for semi-literate masses to read and understand literature.
They all criticized the overuse of Persian, Arabic, and European elements in both colloquial and literary language and called for a simpler and more popular style.
The Russian conquest of Transcaucasia in the 19th century split the language community across two states; the Soviet Union promoted development of the language, but set it back considerably with two successive script changes  — from the Persian to Latin and then to the Cyrillic script — while Iranian Azerbaijanis continued to use the Persian script as they always had.
Despite the wide use of Azerbaijani in the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic , it became the official language of Azerbaijan only in The first examples of Azerbaijani literature date to the late s following the Mongol conquest and were written in Arabic script.
Starting in the s several newspapers were published in Iran during the reign of the Azerbaijani speaking Qajar dynasty but it is unknown whether any of these newspapers were written in Azerbaijani.
It was started by Hasan bey Zardabi , a journalist and education advocate. Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar is an important figure in Azerbaijani poetry.
His most important work is Heydar Babaya Salam and it is considered to be a pinnacle of Azerbaijani literature and gained popularity in the Turkic-speaking world.
It was translated into more than 30 languages. In Azerbaijani language and literature programs are offered in the United States at several universities, including: Azerbaijani served as a lingua franca throughout most parts of Transcaucasia except the Black Sea coast, in southern Dagestan ,    the Eastern Anatolia Region and Iranian Azerbaijan from the 16th to the early 20th centuries,   alongside the cultural, administrative, court literature, and most importantly official language of all these regions, namely Persian.
Beginning in , it was introduced as a language of study in Kutaisi instead of Armenian. In , Azerbaijani became a compulsory language for students of all backgrounds in all of Transcaucasia with the exception of the Tiflis Governorate.
Azerbaijani is one of the Oghuz languages within the Turkic language family. Azerbaijani is classified by Ethnologue as a " macrolanguage  and North Azerbaijani spoken mainly in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Russia and South Azerbaijani spoken in Iran, Iraq and Syria are each classified as separate languages with "significant differences in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax, and loanwords.
Both languages also have dialects, with 21 North Azerbaijani dialects and 11 South Azerbaijani dialects. Although there is a very high degree of mutual intelligibility between both forms of Azerbaijani, there are also morphological and phonological differences.
Four varieties have been accorded ISO codes: Glottolog , based on Johanson and Pakendorf , classifies North Azerbaijani with Salchuq in one branch of the Oghuz languages and South Azerbaijani with Qashqai in another.
According to the Linguasphere Observatory , all Oghuz languages form part of a single "outer language" of which North and South Azerbaijani are "inner languages".
North Azerbaijani,  or Northern Azerbaijani, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. It is closely related to the modern day Istanbul Turkish, the official language of Turkey.
It is also spoken in southern Dagestan , along the Caspian coast in the southern Caucasus Mountains and in scattered regions throughout Central Asia.
As of there are some 9. The Shirvan dialect as spoken in Baku is the basis of standard Azerbaijani. Since , it has been officially written with a Latin script in the Republic of Azerbaijan, but the older Cyrillic script was still widely used in the late s.
Ethnologue lists 21 North Azerbaijani dialects: South Azerbaijani  is widely spoken in Iranian Azerbaijan historic Azerbaijan and, to a lesser extent, in neighboring regions of Iraq and Turkey, with smaller communities in Syria.
The CIA World Factbook reports in the percentage of South Azerbaijani speakers at around 16 percent of the Iranian population, or approximately 13 million people worldwide,  and ethnic Turks form by far the second largest ethnic group in Iran, thus making the language also the second most spoken language in the nation.
Dialects of South Azerbaijani include: Historically, Azerbaijani and Turkish speakers have been able to communicate with relative ease.
Speakers of Turkish and Azerbaijani can communicate with each other but both languages have substantial variation and mutual intelligibility is enhanced when Azerbaijani speakers have been exposed to Turkish television e.
Turkish soap operas or when Turkish speakers have been exposed to Azerbaijani pop music [ why? Most Azerbaijanis, however, are exposed to Turkish television , and, therefore, they tend to be better able to understand Turkish than vice versa.
There are also numerous Turkish schools in the Republic of Azerbaijan that give students more exposure to Turkish than the average Turkish-speaker has to Azerbaijani.
Azerbaijani exhibits a similar stress pattern to Turkish but simpler in some respects. Azerbaijani is a strongly stressed and partially stress-timed language unlike Turkish which is weakly stressed and syllable-timed.
Here are some words with a different pronunciation in Azeri and Turkish that mean the same in both languages:. There are no diphthongs in standard Azerbaijani when two vowels come together; when that occurs in some Arabic loanwords, diphthong is removed by either syllable separation at V.
Before , Azerbaijani was written only in the Persian version of the Arabic alphabet. In — a Latin alphabet was in use for North Azerbaijani although it was different from the one used now , from to the Cyrillic script was used, and in the current Latin alphabet was introduced, although the transition to it has been rather slow.
The Perso-Arabic Azerbaijani alphabet is an abjad ; that is, it does not represent vowels. Also, some consonants can be represented by more than one letter.
The Azerbaijani Latin alphabet is based on the Turkish Latin alphabet, which in turn was based on former Azerbaijani Latin alphabet because of their linguistic connections and mutual intelligibility.
Azerbaijani Turkic also uses a , e , i , o and u with the macron:. In the case of length distinction, these letters are used for Arabic and Persian borrowings from the Islamic period, most of which have been eliminated from the language.
All electricity is produced at thermoelectric power stations burning fossil fuels, which have been built throughout the country. Azerbaijan exports chemicals, machinery, food particularly grapes and other fruits and vegetables , beverages, petroleum and natural gas, iron and steel, nonferrous metals, and other products; its imports include iron and steel, machinery, and food and beverages, particularly meat and milk.
Azerbaijan has no trade with Armenia because of the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh. Few of the rivers of Azerbaijan are navigable, and most freight—including that transported out of the country—is carried by rail and truck.
Considerable portions of the rail network are electrified. The principal goods carried are oil products, building materials, timber, and grain.
Another parallels the Caspian Sea north of Baku. Motor transport is used extensively for both freight and passengers. Roads connect various parts of the country and are often the only means of land communication between remote mountain districts and the administrative centres and large cities.
Baku, on the Caspian, is a busy seaport, handling such goods as oil, timber, grain, and cotton. Air routes connect Baku with many European and Asian cities.
As a result of its advantageous geographic position, it is crossed by freight routes connecting Azerbaijan and the whole of Transcaucasia with the North Caucasus and Central Asia.
Highways run from the peninsula to every corner of the republic. Its main natural wealth is mineral, including oil, natural gas, iodobromide waters, and limestone used in building and cement production.
Baku owes its modern growth to the development of the oil industry; oil derricks encircle the city, and the oil refineries and processing plants attract workers from many areas.
The region also produces spring and winter vegetables. Its coastal lowlands specialize in grain and vegetable production, while vast orchards surround the towns of Quba and Qusar.
The mountain slopes are used for grazing. Special breeds of sheep are raised; their skins are used in the local fur industry. The Shirvan region, an industrially and agriculturally developed part of Azerbaijan, is centred on the Shirvan Plain.
The area also has a well-developed network of roads. Industry is generally engaged in the processing of such agricultural products as cotton, grapes, and fruit.
The Mugano-Salyan region, lying south of the Kura River and within the boundaries of the Mili and Mugan plains, specializes in cotton growing under irrigation , producing about seven-tenths of the gross cotton output of Azerbaijan.
Because the average altitude is 4, feet, it is one of the areas in the country where broken relief impedes the development of transport, industry, and agriculture.
Agricultural production is concentrated in the mountain valleys. Animal husbandry constitutes a large percentage of the gross agricultural output, the leading branches being sheep and pig raising.
Grapes, tobacco, and grain are the main crops; wine-making, silk-making, and electrical engineering are the main industries.
The region has conditions favourable both for human life and for intensive agriculture. It is an industrial centre, with food, engineering, chemical, and nonferrous metallurgical industries.
Naftalan is a health resort. Its territory borders the Greater Caucasus range, which shelters it from cold northern winds.
The numerous mountain rivers provide ample supplies of water, and the region is densely populated. Agricultural products include tobacco, aromatic plants mint, basil, and roses , rice, corn maize , and various fruits.
The area is also a major producer of hazelnuts and walnuts. There are several sources of mineral water in the foothill areas.
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Jan 11, See Article History. Page 1 of 2. Next page Administration and social conditions. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Detached from the Armenian S.
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